Electronics deals with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes and integrated circuits, and associated passive interconnection technologies. The nonlinear behaviour of active components and their ability to control electron flows makes amplification of weak signals possible and electronics is widely used in information processing, telecommunications, and signal processing. The ability of electronic devices to act as switches makes digital information processing possible. Interconnection technologies such as circuit boards, electronics packaging technology, and other varied forms of communication infrastructure complete circuit functionality and transform the mixed components into a regular working system. Electronics is distinct from electrical and electro-mechanical science and technology, which deals with the generation, distribution, switching, storage, and conversion of electrical energy to and from other energy forms using wires, motors, generators, batteries, switches, relays, transformers, resistors, and other passive components. This distinction started around 1906 with the invention by Lee De Forest of the triode, which made electrical amplification of weak radio signals and audio signals possible with a non-mechanical device. Until 1950 this field was called \radio technology\ because its principal application was the design and theory of radio transmitters, receivers, and vacuum tubes. Today, most electronic devices use semiconductor components to perform electron control. The study of semiconductor devices and related technology is considered a branch of solid state physics, whereas the design and construction of electronic circuits to solve practical problems come under electronics engineering. This article focuses on engineering aspects of electronics.
Electronic music is music that employs electronic musical instruments and electronic music technology in its production. In general a distinction can be made between sound produced using electromechanical means and that produced using electronic technology. Examples of electromechanical sound producing devices include the telharmonium, Hammond organ, and the electric guitar. Purely electronic sound production can be achieved using devices such as the Theremin, sound synthesizer, and computer.
Electronic musicElectronic music
Telecommunication is the transmission of information over significant distances to communicate. In earlier times, telecommunications involved the use of visual signals, such as beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, and optical heliographs, or audio messages such as coded drumbeats, lung-blown horns, and loud whistles.
TelecommunicationHistory of radioTelecommunicationsMedia technologyHistory of televisionHistory of telecommunications
Electrical engineering is a field of engineering that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics and electromagnetism. The field first became an identifiable occupation in the late nineteenth century after commercialization of the electric telegraph and electrical power supply. It now covers a range of subtopics including power, electronics, control systems, signal processing and telecommunications. Electrical engineering may include electronic engineering.
Electrical engineeringElectrical engineeringMilitary occupations
Electronics is the branch of physics, engineering and technology dealing with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes and integrated circuits, and associated passive interconnection technologies. The nonlinear behaviour of active components and their ability to control electron flows makes amplification of weak signals possible and is usually applied to information and signal processing.
Electronic Arts, Inc. (EA) is a major American developer, marketer, publisher and distributor of video games. Founded and incorporated on May 28, 1982 by Trip Hawkins, the company was a pioneer of the early home computer games industry and was notable for promoting the designers and programmers responsible for its games. It is one of the largest video game publishers in the world. Originally, EA was a home computing game publisher.
Electronic ArtsInternational Game Developers Association membersCompanies based in Redwood City, CaliforniaCompanies established in 1982Companies listed on NASDAQAcademy of Interactive Arts & Sciences membersVideo game development companiesVideo game publishersMultinational companiesElectronic ArtsEntertainment Software AssociationVideo game companies of the United States
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE, read I-Triple-E) is a non-profit professional association headquartered in New York City that is dedicated to advancing technological innovation and excellence. It has more than 400,000 members in more than 160 countries, about 51.4% of whom reside in the United States.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics EngineersAmerican engineering organizationsInstitute of Electrical and Electronics EngineersOrganizations established in 1963Professional associationsStandards organizationsBibliographic database providersInternational nongovernmental organizationsEngineering societies
An audio engineer, also called audio technician, audio technologist, recording engineer, sound engineer, sound operator, or sound technician, is a specialist in a skilled trade that deals with the use of machinery and equipment for the recording, mixing and reproduction of sounds. The field draws on many artistic and vocational areas, including electronics, acoustics, psychoacoustics, and music.
Audio engineeringRoad crewBroadcasting occupationsAudio engineeringMedia occupationsFilm crewOccupations in musicAudio electronics
DirecTV is an American direct broadcast satellite service provider and broadcaster based in El Segundo, California. Its satellite service, launched on June 17, 1994, transmits digital satellite television and audio to households in the United States, Latin America, and the Anglophone Caribbean. Its primary competitors are Dish Network and cable television providers. At the end of 2011, DirecTV had 19.89 million subscribers.
DirecTVCompanies based in Los Angeles County, CaliforniaCompanies listed on NASDAQCompanies established in 1994Direct broadcast satellite servicesSatellite televisionHigh-definition television
Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics, commonly known as Philips) is a Dutch multinational electronics company headquartered in Amsterdam. It was founded in Eindhoven in 1891 by Gerard Philips and his father Frederik. Philips had revenues of €25.42 billion in 2010, making it one of the largest electronics companies in the world. It employs around 114,500 people across more than 60 countries.
PhilipsMobile phone manufacturersMedical equipment manufacturersHeadphones manufacturersMultinational companies headquartered in the NetherlandsSmall appliance manufacturersConsumer battery manufacturersCompanies established in 1891VideotelephonyShavingElectronics companiesCompanies of the NetherlandsLoudspeaker manufacturersDisplay technology companiesPortable audio player manufacturersPhilipsLighting brands
Samsung Group is a South Korean multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul. It comprises numerous subsidiaries and affiliated businesses, most of them united under the Samsung brand, and is the largest South Korean chaebol.
SamsungPublicly traded companiesCompanies based in SeoulWorldwide Olympic sponsorsChaebolConglomerate companiesSamsung GroupCompanies established in 1938Holding companies of KoreaMultinational companies
Electronic Entertainment Expo
The Electronic Entertainment Expo, commonly known as E3, is an annual trade fair for the computer and video games industry presented by the Entertainment Software Association (ESA). It is used by many video game developers to show off their upcoming games and game-related hardware. E3 is widely considered to be the ultimate expo in the video game industry and major video game critics routinely document the event and sometimes even provide a series of E3 awards.
Electronic Entertainment ExpoRecurring events established in 1995Trade shows in the United StatesVideo game trade shows
A loudspeaker (or "speaker") is an electroacoustic transducer that produces sound in response to an electrical audio signal input. Non-electrical loudspeakers were developed as accessories to telephone systems, but electronic amplification by vacuum tube made loudspeakers more generally useful. The most common form of loudspeaker uses a paper cone supporting a voice coil electromagnet acting on a permanent magnet, but many other types exist.
The Lockheed Corporation (originally Loughead Aircraft Manufacturing Company) was an American aerospace company. Lockheed was founded in 1912 and later merged with Martin Marietta to form Lockheed Martin in 1995.
Lockheed CorporationDefunct aircraft manufacturers of the United StatesDefunct companies in the Greater Los Angeles AreaLockheed CorporationAerospace companies of the United StatesDefunct helicopter manufacturers of the United StatesBurbank, CaliforniaDefense companies of the United StatesHistory of the San Fernando ValleyCompanies disestablished in 1995Manufacturing companies based in California1912 establishments in the United StatesLockheed MartinCompanies established in 1912
An embedded system is a computer system designed for specific control functions within a larger system, often with real-time computing constraints. It is embedded as part of a complete device often including hardware and mechanical parts. By contrast, a general-purpose computer, such as a personal computer (PC), is designed to be flexible and to meet a wide range of end-user needs. Embedded systems control many devices in common use today.
Embedded systemEmbedded systems
Electrical resistance and conductance
The electrical resistance of an electrical element is the opposition to the passage of an electric current through that element; the inverse quantity is electrical conductance, the ease at which an electric current passes. Electrical resistance shares some conceptual parallels with the mechanical notion of friction. The SI unit of electrical resistance is the ohm, while electrical conductance is measured in siemens (S).
Electrical resistance and conductanceElectromagnetismPhysical quantitiesElectronics terms
, a Japanese multinational provider of information technology (IT) services and products, its headquarters in Minato, Tokyo, Japan. NEC, part of the Sumitomo Group, provides information technology (IT) and network solutions to business enterprises, communications services providers and government. The company used the name Nippon Electric Company, Limited, before re-branding in 1983.
NECMobile phone manufacturersNEC CorporationSemiconductor companiesCompanies formerly listed on NASDAQComputer hardware companiesCompanies formerly listed on the London Stock ExchangeElectronics companies of Japan1899 establishments in JapanConglomerate companies of JapanCompanies listed on the Osaka Securities ExchangeCompanies established in 1899Orphan initialismsCompanies based in TokyoComputer printer companiesMitsuiElectric vehicle battery manufacturers
Computer engineering is a discipline that integrates several fields of electrical engineering and computer science required to develop computer systems. Computer engineers usually have training in electronic engineering, software design, and hardware-software integration instead of only software engineering or electronic engineering.
Computer engineeringElectronic engineeringComputer engineering
Consumer electronics are electronic equipment intended for everyday use, most often in entertainment, communications and office productivity. Radio broadcasting in the early 20th century brought the first major consumer product, the broadcast receiver. Later products include personal computers, telephones, MP3 players, audio equipment, televisions, calculators, GPS automotive electronics, digital cameras and players and recorders using video media such as DVDs, VCRs or camcorders.
Consumer electronicsConsumer electronics
Not to be confused with husband and wife Tim McGraw and Faith Hill. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. The McGraw-Hill CompaniesType PublicTraded as NYSE: MHPS&P 500 ComponentIndustry PublishingFounded 1917Headquarters 1221 Avenue of the AmericasNew York City, U.S. Area served WorldwideKey people Harold W.
McGraw-HillPublishing companies established in 1917BroadcastingBook publishing companies based in New YorkMagazine companies of the United StatesFinancial servicesCompanies listed on the New York Stock ExchangeTelevision broadcasting companies of the United StatesCompanies based in New York CityRockefeller Center
In radio communications, a radio receiver is an electronic device that receives radio waves and converts the information carried by them to a usable form. It is used with an antenna. The antenna intercepts radio waves and converts them to tiny alternating currents which are applied to the receiver, and the receiver extracts the desired information.
Receiver (radio)Receiver (radio)
Consumer Electronics Show
The International Consumer Electronics Show (CES) is a major technology-related trade show held each January in the Las Vegas Convention Center, Las Vegas, Nevada, United States. Not open to the public, the Consumer Electronics Association-sponsored show typically hosts previews of products and new product announcements. CES rose to prominence after COMDEX was canceled.
Consumer Electronics ShowConsumer electronicsRecurring events established in 1967Las Vegas conventions and trade showsComputer-related trade showsTrade shows in the United States
Avionics is a term used to describe all of the electronic systems used on aircraft, artificial satellites and spacecraft. Avionic systems include communications, navigation, the display and management of multiple systems and the hundreds of systems that are fitted to aircraft to meet individual roles. These can be as simple as a searchlight for a police helicopter or as complicated as the tactical system for an airborne early warning platform.
AvionicsAvionicsAircraft instrumentsSpacecraft components
LG Corp. is the second-largest South Korean chaebol following Samsung, and it is headquartered in the LG Twin Towers in Yeouido-dong, Yeongdeungpo-gu, Seoul. LG produces electronics, chemicals, and telecommunications products and operates subsidiaries like LG Electronics, LG Display, LG Telecom and LG Chem in over 80 countries.
LG CorpPublicly traded companiesCompanies based in SeoulLG GroupCompanies established in 1947ChaebolConglomerate companiesHolding companies of KoreaMultinational companies
Speech synthesis is the artificial production of human speech. A computer system used for this purpose is called a speech synthesizer, and can be implemented in software or hardware. A text-to-speech (TTS) system converts normal language text into speech; other systems render symbolic linguistic representations like phonetic transcriptions into speech. Synthesized speech can be created by concatenating pieces of recorded speech that are stored in a database.
Speech synthesisArtificial intelligence applicationsAuditory displaysAssistive technologySpeech synthesisHistory of human–computer interactionComputational linguistics
Condensed matter physics
Condensed matter physics is a branch of physics that deals with the physical properties of condensed phases of matter. Condensed matter physicists seek to understand the behavior of these phases by using well-established physical laws, in particular, these include the laws of quantum mechanics, electromagnetism and statistical mechanics.
Condensed matter physicsMaterials scienceCondensed matter physicsFundamental physics concepts
Signal (electrical engineering)
A signal as referred to in communication systems, signal processing, and electrical engineering "is a function that conveys information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon". In the physical world, any quantity exhibiting variation in time or variation in space (such as an image) is potentially a signal that might provide information on the status of a physical system, or convey a message between observers, among other possibilities.
Signal (electrical engineering)Digital signal processingTelecommunication theoryEngineering conceptsSignal processing
For warfare on the Internet, see Cyberwarfare.
Electronic warfareCyberwarfareInformation operationsElectronic warfare
An electronic countermeasure (ECM) is an electrical or electronic device designed to trick or deceive radar, sonar or other detection systems, like infrared (IR) or lasers. It may be used both offensively and defensively to deny targeting information to an enemy. The system may make many separate targets appear to the enemy, or make the real target appear to disappear or move about randomly. It is used effectively to protect aircraft from guided missiles.
Electronic countermeasureMilitary communicationsElectronic countermeasuresWeapons countermeasuresMilitary technology
A ROM cartridge, sometimes referred to as a cart, is a removable enclosure containing read-only memory devices designed to be connected to a computer or games console. ROM cartridges can be used to add additional functionality or content to the host machine, hardware additions like speech synthesis, or software such as video games.
ROM cartridgeComputer connectorsComputer storage media
Parallel ATA (PATA), originally AT Attachment, is an interface standard for the connection of storage devices such as hard disks,floppy drives, and optical disc drives in computers. The standard is maintained by X3/INCITS committee. It uses the underlying AT Attachment (ATA) and AT Attachment Packet Interface (ATAPI) standards.
Parallel ATAComputer connectorsComputer storage busesAT Attachment
Electronics engineering, or electronic engineering, is an engineering discipline where non-linear and active electrical components such as electron tubes, and semiconductor devices, especially transistors, diodes and integrated circuits, are utilized to design electronic circuits, devices and systems, typically also including passive electrical components and based on printed circuit boards.
Electronic engineeringElectrical engineeringElectronic engineeringComputer engineering
For other uses, see Solid state (disambiguation). Solid-state electronics are those circuits or devices built entirely from solid materials and in which the electrons, or other charge carriers, are confined entirely within the solid material. The term is often used to contrast with the earlier technologies of vacuum and gas-discharge tube devices and it is also conventional to exclude electro-mechanical devices from the term solid state.
Solid-state (electronics)SemiconductorsElectronics terms
Homeland security is an umbrella term for security efforts to protect states against terrorist activity. Specifically, is a concerted national effort to prevent terrorist attacks within the U.S. , reduce America’s vulnerability to terrorism, and minimize the damage and recover from attacks that do occur. The term arose following a reorganization of many U.S.
Homeland securityLaw enforcement in the United StatesCivil defenseAmerican political neologisms
Biomedical Engineering is the application of engineering principles and design concepts to medicine and biology. This field seeks to close the gap between engineering and medicine: It combines the design and problem solving skills of engineering with medical and biological sciences to improve healthcare diagnosis, monitoring and therapy. Biomedical engineering has only recently emerged as its own discipline, compared to many other engineering fields.
Biomedical engineeringBiomedical engineeringBioengineering
Pickup (music technology)
A pickup device is a transducer that captures mechanical vibrations, usually from suitably equipped stringed instruments such as the electric guitar, electric bass guitar, Chapman Stick, or electric violin, and converts them to an electrical signal that is amplified, recorded, or broadcast.
Pickup (music technology)Guitar pickupsMusical instrument parts and accessories
Digital electronics represent signals by discrete bands of analog levels, rather than by a continuous range. All levels within a band represent the same signal state. Relatively small changes to the analog signal levels due to manufacturing tolerance, signal attenuation or parasitic noise do not leave the discrete envelope, and as a result are ignored by signal state sensing circuitry.
Digital electronicsDigital systemsElectronic design automationElectronic designDigital electronics
Radio spectrum refers to the part of the electromagnetic spectrum corresponding to radio frequencies – that is, frequencies lower than around 300 GHz (or, equivalently, wavelengths longer than about 1 mm). Different parts of the radio spectrum are used for different radio transmission technologies and applications.
Radio spectrumRadio spectrum
An electronic circuit is composed of individual electronic components, such as resistors, transistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes, connected by conductive wires or traces through which electric current can flow. The combination of components and wires allows various simple and complex operations to be performed: signals can be amplified, computations can be performed, and data can be moved from one place to another.
Electronic circuitElectronic circuitsElectronics termsElectronic engineering
SST Records is an American independent record label formed in 1978 in Long Beach, California by musician Greg Ginn. The company was initially formed in 1966 by Ginn at age 12, as Solid State Transmitters, a small business through which he sold electronics equipment. Ginn repurposed the company as a record label to release material by his band Black Flag.
SST RecordsJazz record labelsAmerican independent record labelsHardcore record labelsRecord labels established in 1978Punk record labelsAlternative rock record labels
In electronics, noise is a random fluctuation in an electrical signal, a characteristic of all electronic circuits. Noise generated by electronic devices varies greatly, as it can be produced by several different effects. Thermal noise is unavoidable at non-zero temperature, while other types depend mostly on device type (such as shot noise, which needs steep potential barrier) or manufacturing quality and semiconductor defects, such as conductance fluctuations, including 1/f noise.
Noise (electronics)NoiseElectronics terms
Thales Group is a French company that designs and builds electronic systems and provides services for the aerospace, defence, transportation and security markets. The headquarters are in Neuilly-sur-Seine (in the suburbs of Paris), and its stock is listed on the Euronext Paris. The company changed its name to Thales from Thomson-CSF in December 2000 shortly after the £1,300 million acquisition of Racal Electronics plc, a UK defence electronics group.
Thales GroupThales GroupEngineering companies of FranceElectronics companies of FranceCompanies of FranceDefence companies of France
Engine control unit
An engine control unit (ECU), most commonly called the powertrain control module (PCM), is a type of electronic control unit that controls a series of actuators on an internal combustion engine to ensure the optimum running. It does this by reading values from a multitude of sensors within the engine bay, interpreting the data using multidimensional performance maps, and adjusting the engine actuators accordingly.
Engine control unitPower controlEngine technologyEngine control systemsEmbedded systemsFuel injection systemsEngine componentsOnboard computers
Hughes Aircraft Company was a major American aerospace and defense contractor founded in 1932 by Howard Hughes in Culver City, California as a division of Hughes Tool Company. The company was known for producing, among other products, the Hughes H-4 Hercules "Spruce Goose" aircraft, the atmospheric entry probe carried by the Galileo spacecraft, and the AIM-4 Falcon guided missile. It was acquired by General Motors from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute in 1985.
Hughes AircraftDefunct aircraft manufacturers of the United StatesDefunct companies in the Greater Los Angeles AreaBoeing mergers and acquisitionsAerospace companies of the United StatesDefunct helicopter manufacturers of the United StatesDefense companies of the United StatesElectronics companies of the United StatesHoward HughesGeneral Motors subsidiariesManufacturing companies based in California
Electronic design automation
Electronic design automation (EDA or ECAD) is a category of software tools for designing electronic systems such as printed circuit boards and integrated circuits. The tools work together in a design flow that chip designers use to design and analyze entire semiconductor chips. This article describes EDA specifically with respect to integrated circuits.
Electronic design automationElectronic design automationElectronic designElectronic engineering
Electroacoustic music originated in Western art music during the modern era following the incorporation of electric sound production into compositional practice.
Electroacoustic musicElectronic music genresExperimental music genres
Analogue electronics (or analog in American English) are electronic systems with a continuously variable signal, in contrast to digital electronics where signals usually take only two different levels. The term "analogue" describes the proportional relationship between a signal and a voltage or current that represents the signal. The word analogue is derived from the Greek word ανάλογος (analogos) meaning "proportional".
Analogue electronicsElectronic engineeringAnalog circuits
Rheinmetall AG is a German automotive and defence company with factories in Düsseldorf, Kassel and Unterlüß. The company has a long tradition of making guns and artillery pieces. The company is also involved in a variety of advanced metal-working and milling technologies, allowing it to provide special high-quality components for small arms in addition to heavy weapon production.
RheinmetallEngineering companies of GermanyDefence companies of GermanyCompanies based in DüsseldorfRheinmetall
A defense contractor (or military contractor) is a business organization or individual that provides products or services to a military department of a government. Products typically include military aircraft, ships, vehicles, weaponry, and electronic systems. Services can include logistics, technical support and training communications support, and in some cases team-based engineering in cooperation with the government.
Defense contractorDefence companies
GTE Corporation, formerly General Telephone & Electronics Corporation (1959-1982) was the largest independent telephone company in the United States during the days of the Bell System. Originally founded in 1929 as Associated Telephone Utilities, it went bankrupt in 1933 during the Great Depression, and reorganized as General Telephone in 1934. In 1991 it acquired the third largest independent, Continental Telephone (ConTel).
GTECompanies disestablished in 2000Verizon CommunicationsDefunct companies based in TexasCompanies based in Irving, TexasCompanies established in 1918Companies formerly listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange
Microelectronics is a subfield of electronics. As the name suggests, microelectronics relates to the study and manufacture of very small electronic designs and components. Usually, but not always, this means micrometre-scale or smaller. These devices are made from semiconductors.
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